Grounds for Divorce in New York
By J. Douglas Barics
Revised February 2014
The seven grounds for divorce in New York are found in Domestic Relations Law Section 170. If grounds are not proven, the divorce will be denied and the marriage will survive. New York is the sole state which has not adopted true no fault divorce; and an unfortunate consequence is that grounds serve more to extract financial concessions in a divorce. Either side has a right to request a jury trial on six of the grounds under DRL 173, however, this right is often waived. The seven grounds are as follows:
(1) Cruel and inhuman treatment such that the conduct of the defendant so endangers the physical or mental well being of the plaintiff as renders it unsafe or improper live with the defendant. DRL 170(1).
Conduct which endangers either physical or mental well being may constitute cruel and inhuman treatment, provided that it makes it unsafe or improper to continue to live together. The 1974 Court of Appeals case of Hessen v. Hessen held that the longer the marriage, the higher the standard it would apply in determining whether conduct constitutes cruel and inhuman treatment sufficient to grant a divorce. This means that the longer the marriage, the harder it is to meet obtain a divorce under DRL 170(1). This holding was re-affirmed by the Court of Appeals again in 1985 in Brady v. Brady. It rejected the argument that the 1980 changes to the divorce laws, which abolished the gender based alimony statute and provided for equitable distribution, made the Hessen standards no longer necessary. Instead, the Court of Appeals affirmed the holding of Hessen, and both cases remain good law today.
There is a five year statue of limitations for any act of cruel and inhuman treatment under Domestic Relations Law 210. However, like any affirmative defense, it must be raised or it is waived.
(2) Abandonment by the defendant for one year or more. DRL 170(2).
Abandonment consists of four elements:
(a) voluntary separation of one spouse from the other
(b) an intent not to resume cohabitation
(c) lack of consent of the other spouse
(d) no justification
When there is no actual abandonment, the courts can impose an abandonment claim based on the actions of the parties. The most common acts under which the courts construct abandonment (called constructive abandonment) are as follows:
(a) One spouse locks the other spouse out of the marital home
(b) The actions of one spouse makes it impossible to live together
(c) Lack of sexual relations.
The Court of Appeals held in Diemer v Diemer 8 N.Y.2d 206 (Court of Appeals, 1960) that a refusal of of sexual relations constitutes abandonment. While Diemer was decided in 1960 under an action for a separation, the definition of abandonment for a divorce action mirrors that of a separation, with the only additional requirement that it be for one year or more, and constructive abandonment is a recognized ground today.
(3) Confinement of the defendant in prison for a period of three or more consecutive years after the marriage of the plaintiff and the defendant. DRL 170(3).
The imprisonment must be actual, not merely a sentencing. The statute is unclear as to whether the defendant must currently be incarcerated for the divorce action to be maintained. However, this question was answered in 2004 by the Court of Appeals when it addressed the question as to when the five year statute of limitations under DRL 210 began to run. In Covington v. Walker 3 NY3d 287 (2004), the Court of Appeals rejected the claim that the statute of limitations began on the date of incarceration. Instead, the Court held that the five year limitation begins to run on the date of release. Thus, there is no requirement that the defendant be actually imprisoned.
(4) The commission of an act of adultery, … defined as the commission of an act of sexual or deviate sexual intercourse, voluntarily performed by the defendant, with a person other than the plaintiff after the marriage of plaintiff and defendant. DRL 170(4).
Adultery means sexual intercourse, and anything less is not sufficient for the court to grant a divorce. Adultery can be proven by direct or circumstantial evidence. However, a spouse's admission to adultery is not sufficient, nor can a spouse testify that his or her spouse committed adultery. C.P.L.R. 4502(a) provides that a spouse is incompetent testify against a spouse to prove adultery. The rational behind this rule is to protect marital harmony, but begs the question as to how much harmony there is to protect during a divorce trial.
There are four affirmative defenses to adultery which are listed in Domestic Relations Law Section 171. Note that they must be raised in the pleadings or they are waived.
(1) The plaintiff caused or consented to the adultery.
(2) The plaintiff has forgiven the defendant.
(3) More than 5 years has passed since the discovery of the adultery. DRL 210.
(4) The plaintiff has also committed adultery.
In Golub v. Ganz, 22 NY AD 3d 919 (3d Dept. 2005) the court granted the divorce on the basis of adultery, despite the adultery occurring after the divorce was commenced.
(5) Living apart pursuant to a decree or judgment of separation for a period of one or more years after the granting of such decree or judgment, and satisfactory proof has been submitted by the plaintiff that he or she has substantially performed all the terms and conditions of such decree. DRL 170(5).
A judgment of separation is the result of an action for a separation pursuant to DRL 200 Known as a conversion divorce, a filing under DRL 170(5) seeks to convert the judgment of separation into a judgment of divorce. Substantial and not literal compliance with the terms of the judgment of separation is required. In King v King 134 Misc.2d 27, (Supreme Court, Kings County, 1986) the husband's divorce action was dismissed when it was shown that he failed to substantially comply with the terms of his judicial separation.
A divorce granted under this section cannot be considered no fault, as fault has already been determined in the underlying judicial separation.
(6) Living separate and apart pursuant to a written agreement of separation, subscribed by the parties thereto and acknowledged or proved in the form required to entitle a deed to be recorded, for a period of one or more years after the execution of such agreement and satisfactory proof has been submitted by the plaintiff that he or she has substantially performed all the terms and conditions of such agreement. DRL 170(6).
Also known as a conversion divorce, it is necessary to satisfy two elements. First is there is a valid separation agreement, and second is the parties have substantially complied with its terms.
A valid separation agreement must be executed in the form which is required for a deed to be recorded, which means the agreement must be signed and acknowledged by the parties; merely notarizing the agreement is insufficient. See Matisoff v Dobi 90 N.Y.2d 127 (Court of Appeals, 1997). In Matisoff, the Court of Appeals held that an unacknowledged marital agreement is unenforceable, despite hearing testimony that both parties signed the agreement.
The statute requires substantial compliance with the agreement, which allows some degree of leeway and prevent the divorce from being denied due to trivial noncompliance. See Stern v Stern 114 A.D.2d 408 (2nd Dept. 1985). But when non compliance is due to the fault of the other side, the court may disallow the defense and grant the divorce. See Nahl v Nahl. 148 A.D.2d 898 (3rd Dept. 1989)
Living Apart Pursuant to a separation agreement for one year or more is one way to obtain a divorce in New York without either party being at fault.
(7) The relationship between husband and wife has broken down irretrievably for a period of at least six months, provided that one party has so stated under oath. DRL 170(7)
For any divorce action filed after October 12, 2010, grounds may be true no fault under section DRL 170(7). This provision allows a divorce to be granted without a finding that either spouse is at fault. Instead, the party seeking the divorce must simply allege that the marriage has irretrievably broken down for six months or more. However, the court may not grant the divorce under no fault until all other ancillary issues are resolved.
The courts were initially split in interpreting this statute. In Strack v. Strack, the Supreme Court of Essex County held that a jury trial under DRL 173 is still permitted to contest these grounds, reasoning that DRL 173 was not amended when Domestic Relations Law 170(7) was adopted. However, in A.C. v. D.R.C., the Supreme Court of Nassau County reached a contrary conclusion, holding that it was the legislative intent to remove any defense to a divorce brought under this section. However, the court is not authorized to grant a motion for summary judgment on grounds even under no fault, since the statute precludes the court granting the divorce until all other issues are resolved.
This split was resolved in December 2012. In Palermo v. Palermo 100 AD3d 1453 (4th Dept. 2012) the Appellate Division Fourth Dept. affirmed the trial court's decision which held there is no right to a trial under New York's irretrievable breakdown law.
Nor will the statute of limitations act as a defense to any action brought under DRL 170(7). In Tuper v. Tuper,98 AD3d 55 (4th Dept. 2012) the parties were married in 1973 and were separated in 1996. The Appellate Division denied the defense of the statute of limitations. In doing so, the Court held that while the statute of limitations of five years does apply, the breakdown of the marriage continues on an ongoing basis when determining the starting date for the five year limitations under DRL 210. The Court held the same logic in Covington as to incarceration under DRL 170(3) should also apply to irretrievable breakdown of the marriage under DLR 170(7)
The article "Grounds for Divorce in New York" is provided as a free educational service by J. Douglas Barics, attorney at law, and does not constitute legal advice. Legal advice may only come from a qualified attorney who is familiar with the facts and circumstances of a specific case.
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